What is the Discrete Fourier Transform?
In mathematics, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) converts a finite sequence of equally-spaced samples of a function into a same-length sequence of equally-spaced samples of the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), which is a complex-valued function of frequency. The interval at which the DTFT is sampled is the reciprocal of the duration of the input sequence. An inverse DFT is a Fourier series, using the DTFT samples as coefficients of complex sinusoids at the corresponding DTFT frequencies. It has the same sample-values as the original input sequence. The DFT is therefore said to be a frequency domain representation of the original input sequence. If the original sequence spans all the non-zero values of a function, its DTFT is continuous (and periodic), and the DFT provides discrete samples of one cycle. If the original sequence is one cycle of a periodic function, the DFT provides all the non-zero values of one DTFT cycle.
What is the Complex Fast Fourier Transform?
The complex Fast Fourier Transform algorithm transforms N real or complex numbers into another N complex numbers. The complex FFT transforms a real or complex signal x in the time domain into a complex two-sided spectrum X in the frequency domain. You must remember that zero frequency corresponds to n = 0, positive frequencies 0 < f < f_c correspond to values 1 ≤ n ≤ N/2 −1, while negative frequencies −fc < f < 0 correspond to N/2 +1 ≤ n ≤ N −1. The value n = N/2 corresponds to both f = f_c and f = −f_c. f_c is the critical or Nyquist frequency with f_c = 1/(2*T) or half the sampling frequency. The first X corresponds to the frequency 1/(N*T).
The complex FFT requires the list of values (resolution, or N) to be a power 2. If the input size if not a power of 2, then the input data will be padded with zeros to fit the size of the closest power of 2 upward.
What is Real-Fast Fourier Transform?
Has conditions similar to the complex Fast Fourier Transform value, except that the input data must be purely real. If the time series data has the basic type complex64, only the real parts of the complex numbers are used for the calculation. The imaginary parts are silently discarded.
What is the Real-Fast Fourier Transform?
In many applications, the input data for the DFT are purely real, in which case the outputs satisfy the symmetry
and efficient FFT algorithms have been designed for this situation (see e.g. Sorensen, 1987). One approach consists of taking an ordinary algorithm (e.g. Cooley–Tukey) and removing the redundant parts of the computation, saving roughly a factor of two in time and memory. Alternatively, it is possible to express an even-length real-input DFT as a complex DFT of half the length (whose real and imaginary parts are the even/odd elements of the original real data), followed by O(N) post-processing operations.
It was once believed that real-input DFTs could be more efficiently computed by means of the discrete Hartley transform ( DHT ), but it was subsequently argued that a specialized real-input DFT algorithm ( FFT ) can typically be found that requires fewer operations than the corresponding DHT algorithm (FHT) for the same number of inputs. Bruun's algorithm (above) is another method that was initially proposed to take advantage of real inputs, but it has not proved popular.
There are further FFT specializations for the cases of real data that have even/odd symmetry, in which case one can gain another factor of roughly two in time and memory and the DFT becomes the discrete cosine/sine transform(s) ( DCT / DST ). Instead of directly modifying an FFT algorithm for these cases, DCTs/DSTs can also be computed via FFTs of real data combined with O(N) pre- and post-processing.
What is the Discrete Cosine Transform?
A discrete cosine transform ( DCT ) expresses a finite sequence of data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies. The DCT , first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, is a widely used transformation technique in signal processing and data compression. It is used in most digital media, including digital images (such as JPEG and HEIF, where small high-frequency components can be discarded), digital video (such as MPEG and H.26x), digital audio (such as Dolby Digital, MP3 and AAC ), digital television (such as SDTV, HDTV and VOD ), digital radio (such as AAC+ and DAB+), and speech coding (such as AAC-LD, Siren and Opus). DCTs are also important to numerous other applications in science and engineering, such as digital signal processing, telecommunication devices, reducing network bandwidth usage, and spectral methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations.
The use of cosine rather than sine functions is critical for compression, since it turns out (as described below) that fewer cosine functions are needed to approximate a typical signal, whereas for differential equations the cosines express a particular choice of boundary conditions. In particular, a DCT is a Fourier-related transform similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), but using only real numbers. The DCTs are generally related to Fourier Series coefficients of a periodically and symmetrically extended sequence whereas DFTs are related to Fourier Series coefficients of only periodically extended sequences. DCTs are equivalent to DFTs of roughly twice the length, operating on real data with even symmetry (since the Fourier transform of a real and even function is real and even), whereas in some variants the input and/or output data are shifted by half a sample. There are eight standard DCT variants, of which four are common.
The most common variant of discrete cosine transform is the type-II DCT , which is often called simply "the DCT". This was the original DCT as first proposed by Ahmed. Its inverse, the type-III DCT , is correspondingly often called simply "the inverse DCT" or "the IDCT". Two related transforms are the discrete sine transform ( DST ), which is equivalent to a DFT of real and odd functions, and the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT), which is based on a DCT of overlapping data. Multidimensional DCTs ( MD DCTs) are developed to extend the concept of DCT to MD signals. There are several algorithms to compute MD DCT . A variety of fast algorithms have been developed to reduce the computational complexity of implementing DCT . One of these is the integer DCT (IntDCT), an integer approximation of the standard DCT ,: ix, xiii, 1, 141–304 used in several ISO /IEC and ITU-T international standards.
What is the Discrete Sine Transform?
In mathematics, the discrete sine transform ( DST ) is a Fourier-related transform similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), but using a purely real matrix. It is equivalent to the imaginary parts of a DFT of roughly twice the length, operating on real data with odd symmetry (since the Fourier transform of a real and odd function is imaginary and odd), where in some variants the input and/or output data are shifted by half a sample.
A family of transforms composed of sine and sine hyperbolic functions exists. These transforms are made based on the natural vibration of thin square plates with different boundary conditions.
The DST is related to the discrete cosine transform ( DCT ), which is equivalent to a DFT of real and even functions. See the DCT article for a general discussion of how the boundary conditions relate the various DCT and DST types. Generally, the DST is derived from the DCT by replacing the Neumann condition at x=0 with a Dirichlet condition. Both the DCT and the DST were described by Nasir Ahmed T. Natarajan and K.R. Rao in 1974. The type-I DST (DST-I) was later described by Anil K. Jain in 1976, and the type-II DST (DST-II) was then described by H.B. Kekra and J.K. Solanka in 1978.
- windowper = period for calculation, restricted to powers of 2: "16", "32", "64", "128", "256", "512", "1024", "2048", this reason for this is FFT is an algorithm that computes DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) in a fast way, generally in 𝑂(𝑁⋅log2(𝑁)) instead of 𝑂(𝑁2). To achieve this the input matrix has to be a power of 2 but many FFT algorithm can handle any size of input since the matrix can be zero-padded. For our purposes here, we stick to powers of 2 to keep this fast and neat. read more about this here: Cooley–Tukey FFT algorithm
- SS = smoothing count, this smoothing happens after the first FCT regular pass. this zeros out frequencies from the previously calculated values above SS count. the lower this number, the smoother the output, it works opposite from other smoothing periods
- Fmin1 = zeroes out frequencies not passing this test for min value
- Fmax1 = zeroes out frequencies not passing this test for max value
- barsback = moves the window backward
- Inverse = whether or not you wish to invert the FFT after first pass calculation
Real-Fast Fourier Transform of
STD-Stepped Fast Cosine Transform Moving Average
Real-Fast Fourier Transform of Price w/
Variety of Fast Discrete Cosine Transform
A Fast Computational Algorithm for the Discrete Cosine Transform by Chen et al.
Practical Fast 1-D DCT Algorithms With 11 Multiplications by Loeffler et al.
Cooley–Tukey FFT algorithm
Ahmed, Nasir (January 1991). "How I Came Up With the Discrete Cosine Transform". Digital Signal Processing. 1 (1): 4–5. doi:10.1016/1051-2004(91)90086-Z.
DCT-History - How I Came Up With The Discrete Cosine Transform
Comparative Analysis for Discrete Sine Transform as a suitable method for noise estimation